Americans today think of the War for Independence as a revolution, but in important respects it was also a civil war. American Loyalists, or "Tories" as their opponents called them, opposed the Revolution, and many took up arms against the rebels. Estimates of the number of Loyalists range as high as 500,000, or 20 percent of the white population of the colonies.
My Comments: History
is not being rewritten, but some history is just being
left out. Here is a quote from Tupper Saussy Book
" Rulers of Evil" page 85 & 86. Book review click here Of the 2,500,000 enumerated inhabitants
in 1787 America, the Roman
Catholic population consisted of no more than 16,000 in Maryland,
in New York, and 200
in Virginia.(what that
means in per cent is: 1% of the population benefited
and the 99% had
to go along with the 1%) Once the Constitution was
in place, a steady influx of European immigrants
transformed Roman Catholicism from America's smallest
to the largest religious denomination.
By 1850, the higher powers at Rome could view the
United States as a viable tributary, if not another papal state.
The revolution was not about taxes, it was about
religion. Understand Catholicism was illegal to pratice
in the public or to hold public office prior to 1776.
The 1% were Catholics and the 99% were Protestants. Click here for more information.
Now lets fast forward to 2015. There
are 28 Jesuit Universities in
America and 50 Jesuit high schools. The highest
concentration of Jesuit influence than any other
country in the world. Understand they Jesuits are in
Who benefited from the American Revolution??
What motivated the Loyalists? Most educated Americans, whether Loyalist or Revolutionary, accepted John Locke's theory of natural rights and limited government. Thus, the Loyalists, like the rebels, criticized such British actions as the Stamp Act and the Coercive Acts. Loyalists wanted to pursue peaceful forms of protest because they believed that violence would give rise to mob rule or tyranny. They also believed that independence would mean the loss of economic benefits derived from membership in the British mercantile system.(Again it is what they are leaving out of this article. Nothing is being said of Religion. Religion is behind Politics, not Politics behind Religion. Click here for the two missing links in the founding of America)
Loyalists came from all walks of life. The majority were small farmers, artisans and shopkeepers. Not surprisingly, most British officials remained loyal to the Crown. Wealthy merchants tended to remain loyal, as did Anglican ministers, especially in Puritan New England. Loyalists also included some blacks (to whom the British promised freedom), Indians, indentured servants and some German immigrants, who supported the Crown mainly because George III was of German origin.
The number of Loyalists in each colony varied. Recent estimates suggest that half the population of New York was Loyalist; it had an aristocratic culture and was occupied throughout the Revolution by the British. In the Carolinas, back-country farmers were Loyalist, whereas the Tidewater planters tended to support the Revolution.
During the Revolution, most Loyalists suffered little from their views. However, a minority, about 19,000 Loyalists, armed and supplied by the British, fought in the conflict.
The Paris Peace Treaty required Congress to restore property confiscated from Loyalists. The heirs of William Penn in Pennsylvania, for example, and those of George Calvert in Maryland received generous settlements. In the Carolinas, where enmity between rebels and Loyalists was especially strong, few of the latter regained their property. In New York and the Carolinas, the confiscations from Loyalists resulted in something of a social revolution as large estates were parceled out to yeoman farmers.About 100,000 Loyalists left the country, including William Franklin, the son of Benjamin, and John Singleton Copley, the greatest American painter of the period. Most settled in Canada. Some eventually returned, although several state governments excluded the Loyalists from holding public office. In the decades after the Revolution, Americans preferred to forget about the Loyalists. Apart from Copley, the Loyalists became nonpersons in American history.
We know that Patriots fought for independence from Great Britain. They are mostly the people we hear about in school; we don't normally hear about the Loyalist side of the war. A Loyalist is someone who is loyal to King George III. A Tory is a British soldier; that's what the Patriots called them, at least.
Some Loyalists didn't fight because they were not dissatisfied. They may have been wealthy or simply believed that Great Britain was justified in its actions. Patriots would insult Loyalists and mistrusted them because they did not believe in the Patriots' cause.
Another group of people who did not wish to fight during the American Revolution were Quakers, or Friends. A Quaker was someone who just wanted peace, or wouldn't fight because it was against their religion. They were often mistakenly referred to as Loyalists because they wouldn't fight.
Image courtesy of Art Today.
After the war, many of the Loyalists and Quakers moved up to Canada and made their own community.
The Hessians returned to Germany.
The Patriots started their own new government, called a Confederation.
The Loyalists in the Revolutionary War were the American colonists who supported King George III of England and did not want independence. They made up about 20 percent of the population in the colonies and, while only about 19,000 of them actually fought in the war, they made the conflict much more bitter by splitting the society into opposing camps. They had a variety of reasons for their opposition to the Revolution, and they made a variety of choices after the war was over.
The Loyalists in the Revolutionary War lived in each of the colonies, in urban and rural areas, and they practiced many different trades. However, some areas and social niches had a greater percentage of Loyalists than others. New York, which the British occupied during the American Revolution, had a heavily British culture and may have been as much as half Loyalist. The Carolinas also had a large Loyalist population, mostly among the rural farmers.
Anyone appointed by the British government tended to support the Crown; successful merchants and Anglican ministers usually favored England as well. Quakers tended to be Loyalist because they were pacifists, and being a revolutionary meant supporting the war. Store owners, farmers and craftsmen were also often Loyalist.
There were a few specific ethnic groups that tended to be Loyalists in the Revolutionary War: Germans favored Britain because of King George III's German background, and Native and African Americans alike often supported the British because the Crown had promised to end slavery. Indentured servants often felt the same way.
Aside from these particular ethnic and social reasons to remain loyal to Britain, the Loyalists had economic and political reasons for their affiliation. John Locke's theories, which supported a government, were widely accepted at the time, and acts like the Stamp Act and the Coercive Acts went against these theories. By and large, the Loyalists didn't approve of these acts any more than the revolutionaries did; however, they were afraid that a revolution would lead to either despotism or anarchy, and they preferred the devil they knew to the devil they didn't. Also, Britain had a strong, established economy and trading fleet, and the colonies were able to reap the benefits of that system. Severing ties with England would mean supporting themselves entirely as a country, and the Loyalists were concerned that the colonies were not prepared to do that.
Many of the Loyalists had their property confiscated during or right after the war, until the Paris Peace Treaty of 1783, which gave it back to them. The Paris Peace Treaty also gave Loyalists the right to live and work safely in the United States, without fear of retribution for their support for the Crown. Nonetheless, between 60,000 and 80,000 Loyalists chose to leave the new country. Most of them moved to Canada; a group of 1,000 black Loyalists chose to move to Sierra Leone.
While the people who were Loyalist during the Revolution were legally safe and free to remain in the United States, many states prohibited them from working for their governments, and they were hated and mocked by their neighbors who had supported the revolution. The Loyalists in the Revolutionary War survived the change of power, but their association with the British Crown destroyed their reputations and their social standing in the new nation.
The entire text of the Paris Peace Treaty of 1783 is available at http://studyourhistory.com/studies/original-documents/the-paris-peace-treaty-of-1783.
An index of primary sources about the Loyalists in the American Revolution is available at http://www.royalprovincial.com/index.htm.
United States History - Loyalists During the American Revolution, http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-33.htm
Loyalists and Loyalism in the American Revolution,